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All the ice-creams on offer at Expo Milano 2015: 10 unusual flavours not to be missed

Taste / -

Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015

Whether their appeal derives from them being limited editions, or made with typical ingredients of a Country, or perhaps because you can only find them at Expo Milano 2015, be sure you don’t miss out on tasting all of these delicious ice-creams during this Universal Exposition.

In such a hot season, a Universal Exposition dedicated to food could not help but offer a wide range of cool, sweet, tasty and popular foods such as ice-cream, the true food of summer.

There are many refreshment points where visitors can stop and recharge their batteries whenever they feel the need. Various Pavilions from different Countries are offering ice-creams in their bars and restaurants after each meal. Then there are also several permanent outlets on the map, managed by large producers who offer a wide, range for everyone’s requirements. At Casa Algida there is an full selection of Algida ice-creams to refresh visitors on their trip around the world. In a garden of 250 square metres next to a coloured carousel for children, there is a Grom ice-cream and icicle kiosk, items that are also available in an Apecar and a sweet bike. In the Caffarel kiosk visitors can sit on a Gianduiotto in the centre of the park and enjoy a sweet break with soft ice-cream in three flavours. Instead, at Sweeting Natfood visitors can fill an original alembic with layers of multi-coloured slushes as much as they like. In the Amalo kiosk, ice-creams and slushes are made with fresh, seasonal and zero-mileage fruit.

There have also been special initiatives during which it was possible to taste truly daring preparations. From the 2nd of June, for the whole week of Orgoglio Italia, Coldiretti offered a three-coloured bruschetta in an ice-cream version (pesto, garlic and tomato). Thousands of portions of molecular ice-cream were handed out at the Qatar Pavilion for the grand finale of the tomato week, on the 22nd of June. A very appetizing saffron ice-cream was offered by Greece in the Bio-Mediterraneum Cluster on the 24th of July, and every Thursday evening in Piazza Beretta 1812  two tasting sessions featuring gourmet ice-cream are held: in one of the forthcoming editions these will also allow visitors to try mortadella ice-cream.

The extraordinary range of food available for visitors to try in this edition of Expo Milano 2015 provides opportunities for trying rare experiences and flavours every day, in limited edition recipes, with fruit and typical flavours from distant Countries, or perhaps special versions of famous ice-creams.
 
 
Date flavoured ice-cream
The range of typical Bahraini ice-cream flavours, which are unusual yet tasty and very sweet does not stop in the Country’s Pavilion with the date flavoured variety. Bahraini peanut flavoured ice-cream and chocolate sorbet are also well worth tasting. Then there is also the very delicate rose, the even more subtle saffron and the tasty mango flavours. But, most of all, the famous fruit that is prince of the desert is the one that stands out. The date tree has an extraordinary ability to adapting to the drought experienced in the arid areas, because it finds water with its roots up to 10 metres underground and 20 metres away. And it tastes nice. Sweet and fleshy. You can feel the floury texture of the date, sense the distinctive taste, feel the small pieces of fruit. Rich, determined, dense and fulfilling…  (2.80 euro).
Bahrain Pavilion [G8]

Baobab flavoured ice-cream
Baobab is a majestic African tropical tree. For millenniums it has provided the African populations with food, medicine and a sacred place (so much so that only the wise can climb up on its branches). Its leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used both as food and as traditional medicine. The pulp of the fruit of the baobab, extracted from the shell and naturally dried, is a source of basic nutritional elements. Used to make ice-cream (6 euro), it has a rather surprising consistency which is almost like baby food, or fruit puree. It tastes most like pear, but this is only to give you an idea. What to eat for a full health and pleasure combination? Try combining Baobab juice and ice-cream.
Angola Pavilion [G8]

Rice flavoured ice-cream with saffron sauce
This is also an ideal opportunity to become familiar with the cuisine – and philosophy - of the grand prize-winning chef Davide Oldani, Ambassador of Expo Milano 2015, who is offering a menu based on rice here at Expo: panini, wafers and, among various main courses, the symbolic "Saffron and rice" dish designed especially for Milan. Milk and Carnaroli rice are also the ingredients of the ice-cream (4 euro) on which the chef breaks with tradition and places a squiggle of this saffron sauce (sourced from two producers, one from Varedo and one from L'Aquila) in corn flour. The cocoa beans are not just used as a decoration but give the ice-cream its crunchiness and bitter aftertaste. Here, we must be able to let ourselves go and enjoy the balance between sweet and salty. And this is an even rockier ride if you choose to have your ice-cream served in the specially designed particular crunchy rice wafers available. These are not made of puffed rice to ensure the "polystyrene" effect is avoided, and are prepared each morning using a small press that toasts the rice, slightly flavoured with saffron infusion. You can also try the panettone flavoured ice-cream, sprinkled with an original crumbling of cake, and the chocolate ice-cream with splendid marble flakes.
Davide Oldani [J7]

Nutella flavoured ice-cream
In the concept bar on the first floor of one of the Eataly areas, next to a pile of very appetising large slices of bread and crepes ready to be spread and filled with Nutella, the Nutella ice-cream also features as one of the specialities on offer (3 euro). The recipe has clearly been carefully devised and calibrated, because this is not just chocolate or milk ice-cream with a touch of the famous Ferrero hazelnut cream inside or on top of it: its distinctive flavour is easily recognised, it is not excessively sweet or sickly, and it gives the consumer the idea that he is actually eating Nutella. Just, a really cold version of it. Actually, frozen!
Nutella Concept Bar [H15]
 
Foody flavoured ice-cream
Not to be missed in this tour of the Universal Exposition, a taste of the flavour that the Gelateria Rigoletto has dedicated to the official mascot of Expo Milano 2015. As everyone knows, the Foody character is made up of various fruits from all over the world, and as a tribute to the same inspiration, the Foody-flavoured ice-cream follows suit. It is an orange colour, with pinkish hues, a creamy ice-cream made with milk and tropical fruit, in particular mango, papaya and passion fruit, with lime jam. It is extremely tasty, because the tropical flavours are fresh and aromatic and it is fun to eat, due to the pieces of caramelised lime peel hidden in the cream (3 euro). Other flavours on offer include Bronte pistachio Dop, chocolate from Modica, mint from Pancalieri, amaretto from Saronno, marsala from Florio. Those of us who are keen to try more original variations can fill their tubs with mandarin-flavoured extra virgin olive oil ice-cream, available nearby from Coppini.
Gelateria Rigoletto [Cardo Sud Est]

My Magnum
This is your chance to have a Magnum custom-made for you (5 euro). Choose your filling – a heart of vanilla or chocolate on the stick – and your chocolate covering (white, milk or dark).  As a topping you can opt for caramelised almonds, diced coconut, cinnamon biscuits strong coffee shavings, raspberry sprinkles, rose petals, chopped pistachios and hazelnut biscuits Igp. The Magnum-makers will create a unique, personalised version of the famous ice-cream right in front of your eyes. The melted chocolate hardens immediately when it comes into contact with the ice-cream and becomes crunchy.
Magnum Pleasure Store [G21]

Grana Padano ice-cream
The double-domed Copagri area offers a wide selection of ice-creams, all made with low mileage milk under the brand “Love It”. Inside, the area is designed as a true "local market" full of all the best products made by the Copagri network. The flavours of the ice-creams are so unusual and the possibilities of combining these are so vast that visitors to the venue are spoiled for choice. Alongside the traditional flavours sit original combinations such as mint and lemon and lemon and basil. The most unusual flavour which it is impossible not to try is undoubtedly the Grana Padano ice-cream (3 euro). It truly tastes like Grana and is made with Grana, but the characteristic, rather striking taste of the cheese is softened by the smooth texture of the white cream. At first it takes a little while for the palate to get used to the taste, but once it has, there is no going back. You can combine it with bramble flavour, to imitate the consolidated cheese and jam formula. Tasting this ice-cream is even more pleasant because of the setting: visitors can sit down and try it at Lake Arena, against the striking backdrop of the Tree of Life.
Copagri – Love It [D21]

Vanilla ice-cream from Israel
There are two flavours of ice-cream that are the most popular among visitors to the busy area in front of the buffet in the Israel Pavilion. One is Israeli vanilla (white vanilla with halva and silan (date honey) ripples) and the other is Israeli yoghurt ice-cream (yoghurt with rose water rippled with apricot jam and chopped hazelnuts), slightly sour with the apricot jam providing a dash of sweetness and the hazelnuts providing its crunchy texture, leaving a toasted aftertaste on the palate (2.80 euro). These two flavours are also accompanied by other traditional flavours such as hazelnut, pistachio, almond, lemon and fruit cocktail.
Padiglione Israele [G19]

The Cremino ice-cream
The story of the Cremino, invented in Turin at the end of the 19th century, interweaves with the story of tradition and of industry, as this is perhaps the first case of a dessert being “adopted by a car manufacturing company, Fiat, which in 1911 held a competition to create a version characterised by the brand on the packaging. Today, the producers of the Cremino stil make it with gianduia, choclate paste and coffee. The ancient tradition of the chocolatier from the Langhe flows perfectly into the Cremino-flavoured ice-cream by Pernigotti (2.50 euro). With a velvety texture and a soft, intense taste, this ice-cream releases two distinct flavours, those of the chocolate and hazelnuts of Piedmont, perfectly recreating the traditional taste of the chocolate made with gianduia and hazelnut cream.
Pernigotti: il gelato [H12]

White melon slush
Think of Sicily and you think of cassata, almonds, oranges, cold coffee in ice. The area dedicated to Sicilian cakes in the Bio-Mediterraneum Cluster provides an opportunity for visitors to taste many exquisite delicacies, but unexpectedly, the most delicious cold dish is perhaps the least well-known: white melon slush (3 euro). Ok, so it’s not really an ice-cream, but it is fresh, it is made with fruit and it does quench your thirst. There is also a variation made with the juice of oranges from Ribera and a lemon variety. But as much as white melon is surprising, it is also extremely aromatic, low in sugar and extremely refreshing; indeed the slush is so fragrant that it appears to be pure fruit, frozen and crushed. Thos seeking a more substantial snack can add it to the Tumminello biscuits made with raw almonds, sugar and pumpkin preserve, Maraschino and cinnamon.
Sweet Sicily, Padiglione Bio-Mediterraneo
 
 

From the Corn and Avocado Flavor of Mexico to the Gutturnio From Piacenza… A Festival of Special Edition Ice Creams

Taste / -

 
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Gutturnio wine ice cream at Piazzetta Piacenza
Four new flavors of ice cream made from Poretti beer at the Italian Pavilion.
© Padiglione Italia
Poretti beer ice cream at Piazzetta Piacenza
Tomato ice cream served on slices of bread at Piazzetta Piacenza
Helados de Paila ice cream made with premium cocoa from Ecuador and coconut sugar, at the Cocoa and Chocolate Cluster
© Andrea Proietti
Fig ice cream at the Bahrain Pavilion
© Francesco Cappa
Basil sorbet created by chef Davide Oldani
Mourad Balti Touati © Expo 2015
Watermelon and mint ice cream at Gelateria Rigoletto
Mourad Balti Touati © Expo 2015
Champagne and grapefruit granita at the Monaco Pavilion
Panettone ice cream at the Cereals and Tubers Cluster
Avocado ice cream and corn ice cream at the Mexico Pavilion
The chocolate and ice cream-based "Choco cocktail" at the Cocoa and Chocolate Cluster
© Andrea Proietti
Caffarel Gianduia ice cream
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Ice cream packaged in Austria
Dame Blanche, with whipped cream and dark Belgian chocolate, at the Belgium Pavilion
Date ice cream at the Bahrain Pavilion
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
My Magnum at the Magnum Pleasure Store
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Nutella ice cream at Expo Milano 2015
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Vanilla ice cream from Israel at Expo Milano 2015
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
White melon granita from Sweet Sicily, in the Bio-Mediterraneum Cluster
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Alpine milk ice cream
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Grana Padano ice cream from Copagri at Expo Milano 2015
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Pernigotti ice cream at Expo Milano 2015
Giulia Mazzoleni © Expo 2015
Foody-flavored ice cream from Rigoletto at Expo Milano 2015
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015
Baobab ice cream at the Angola Pavilion at Expo Milano 2015
Andrea Mariani © Expo 2015

The Ferragosto holiday was an ideal day for proposing new ideas, experiments and surprising typical ingredients from different countries, sponsors and Pavilions… all expressed with ice cream, or "gelato" as they say in Italy. A triumph of deliciousness!

Various Pavilions took advantage of this special occasion to inaugurate new flavors, or to offer one-day tasting events to spread awareness of the gastronomic possibilities of ice cream. The Bahrain Pavilion proposed a new Fig Ice Cream recipe. Monte Carlo offered a delicious granita with Champagne Riviera and pink grapefruit. Israel a free tasting event with four new flavors. In Palazzo Italia, Rigoletto Ice Cream and the Poretti Brewery provided ice creams based on four special beers and one new invention, watermelon with mint.
 
Mexico was rightly proud of two typical and extremely fragrant flavors: avocado and corn, with crushed and toasted flakes of corn incorporated. In Piazzetta Piacenza an entire afternoon was devoted to tasting ice creams made from local ingredients like pumpkin, local craft beers, organic tomatoes, asparagus and an extravagant version with Gutturnio red wine. In the Cocoa and Chocolate Cluster, already well-stocked with ice cream stalls, a tasting event featured traditional pure cocoa ice cream, followed up by inebriating cocktails with ice cream.
 
A festival whose goodness was not only gastronomic: for example, the initiative by
Algida Ice Creams, which throughout the day sold its Share the Love cone at one euro, with the profits devoted to Save the Children projects, and Rigoletto Ice Creams which twinned the launch of its new watermelon and mint flavor with support for social initiatives.
 
 
 

A short history of ice cream. From ancient Roman snow to love with a heart of cream

Economy / -

Storia del gelato
Scena del film "Lettere di una novizia", 1960 / Fondazione Cineteca Italiana, fondo Lattuada

In its variegated journey zigzagging between history and geography, ice cream has evolved from being a dessert for the powerful elite to a street food loved by all and eaten all year round. Way back in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, drinks with ice or snow were served to the rich and powerful, but it took several more millennia before master confectioners in Italy created the formats and flavors which have now conquered the world.

The first ice cream cup
What could call itself the first ice cream cup was found in Egypt in a tomb from the Second Dynasty (2700 BC). This was a kind of mold, consisting of two silver cups, one of which contained snow (or crushed ice) and the other cooked fruit. “Icehouses”, where snow was stored and ice deliberately formed, were undoubtedly an extremely ancient invention.
 
Ancient Rome
In Ancient Rome special wells were used to store ice and snow which slaves brought down from to mountains to luxurious villas. Among the ruins of Pompeii there are traces which lead us to believe that some shops specialized in selling crushed ice (from Vesuvius) sweetened with honey.
 
1st millennium
Gathering ice to preserve food was a practice in Japan (where Emperor Nintoku proclaimed an Ice Day) and in China, over a thousand years ago. In the Shih Ching, an ancient collection of odes, mention is made of an ice-gathering festival. During the Tang Dynasty an elegant drink was recorded, consisting of milk (goat, cow or buffalo) cooked with flour and camphor and then placed in iron containers and buried in snow or ice. The Arabs prepared cold drinks with cherries, quinces and pomegranates. ‘Sorbet’ and ‘sorbetto’ come from the Turkish word sherbet meaning ‘cool drink’, from the Arab sharab, to drink.
 
Inca traditions
The first ‘ice cream’ on the American continent was the ‘Paila’, a tradition in Pre-Columbian Ecuador. The Caranquis (or Caras), before being conquered by the Incas, sent expeditions to bring blocks of ice and snow down from the top of the volcano Imbabura, wrapped in thick layers of straw and frailejòn leaves, for thermal insulation. The ice cream was then made by filling a large cauldron (called a “paila”) with ice, snow and fruit juice (and sometimes milk also), and mixing vigorously until the juices and ice froze together. Using this ancestral technique, gradually perfected over centuries, helados de paila are still prepared traditionally today in some places in Ecuador, especially in the modern town of Imbabura.
 
Ice Cream Renaissance
Legend has it that the Medici family organized a competition for the most original culinary recipes which was won by a certain Ruggeri (a chicken seller), who had submitted a composition of water, sugar and fruit, probably similar to a granita, an “ice with sugared and perfumed water”. There is some dispute about whether it was Catherine de’ Medici, when leaving for her marriage to the Duke of Orleans and future King Henry II, who brought Ruggeri and his ice cream arts across the Alps.
 
Another story somewhere between legend and reality regards the architect Bernardo Buontalenti inventing an iced dessert for Charles V of Spain at a famous inaugural feast for the Belvedere Fort of Cosimo I de’ Medici in 1559. Thanks to this event, some people consider Buontalenti the true inventor of ice cream: his recipe is recorded as a cold cream made of milk, honey, egg yolk, a sprinkle of wine, aromatized with bergamot, lemon and orange. This is certainly the basic recipe for the “Florentine Cream” or “Buontalento Ice Cream” which the best ice cream makers in Florence still serve. It is said that Buontalenti even had a machine built, consisting of revolving slats driven by a handle to beat the mixture and a cylinder in the center filled with ice.
 
1674
The French author Nicolas Lemery cites the first recipe in French for aromatized ice, in his book Recueil de Curiosités les plus rares et admirables, a collection of naturalistic curiosities.
 
1685 - 1686 
Cantinette e cantimplore stieno in pronto a tutte l'ore, con forbite bombolette chiuse e strette tra le brine delle nevi cristalline” – “Let cellars and ice-jugs be at the ready, and decanters packed to the neck in crystalline snow”, wrote the scientist and poet Francesco Redi in his poem Arianna inferma on the subject of iced drinks, continuing that “Snow is the fifth element needed for the best drinks: he is a fool who thinks to attain true drinking pleasure without the help of snow.” The “bomboletta” was a glass container with a twisted neck, designed to be plunged in ice or snow to cool wine (the garden of the Grand Duke of Tuscany had a whole hillside dedicated to making ice).
 
The “cantimplora”, on the other hand, was a large glass container with a chamber in the middle which could be filled with ice or snow to chill the wine it contained, with a long neck protruding from one side, as in a watering can. Lorenzo Magalotti later described a similar item as a large golden sorbet-maker (the Medici Ambassador to Vienna, in his Canzonette anacreontiche of 1723, was describing in verse the first rudimental devices for making sorbets).
 
While these containers were in use in Tuscany, Sicily was developing a flourishing ice industry: large wells or natural crevices were filled with snow in the winter (from Etna, or from the Hyblaean or Madonie Mountains) and then sold in large blocks in the summer. Francesco Procopio de’ Coltelli, a Sicilian cook, emigrated to Paris and opened a café, one of the first such establishments. The Cafè Procope became a fashionable high society meeting place, and the enterprising Sicilian ingeniously multiplied his repertoire of “iced waters”, substituting the honey with sugar and adding salt to the ice in order to chill the preparations more quickly and make them last longer. His menu of “acque gelate” (granitas) came to include flavors such as “aniseed flower”, “cinnamon flower”, “frangipane”, “lemon juice gelato”, “orange juice gelato” and “strawberry sorbet”.
 
1692-1694 
Details of well-organized recipes for making sorbets: written by Antonio Latini, chef du table and director of the kitchens for a Spanish viceroy in Naples, in his publication “Lo scalco alla moderna, overo l'arte di ben disporre i conviti, con le regole piu scelte di scalcheria” – “The modern banqueting director, or the art of arranging banquets, with the most important rules of banqueting etiquette”.  This book meticulously transcribes the best recipes for making “sorbetti in Naples”, described as the home of the art of sorbet-making, where sorbets are not only served at aristocratic tables but also in taverns and inns.
 
One chapter is specifically headed “A Treatise on various kinds of sorbets or iced waters”, describing in detail how to mix snow with sugar, salt, lemon juice, strawberries, cherries and chocolate. Latini also describes a pine nut flavor and an aubergine recipe. Especially interesting is his mention of a “sorbet made of cooked milk”, indicating a big step towards modern ice cream. His recipe? Cook a pot of milk, sugar and water, garnish with sugared citron and pumpkin, and then freeze. Various gastronomic historians argue that this milk sorbet can lay claim to be “the first ice cream in history”.
 
In this period the mastery of Italians in preparing sorbets is recognized across Europe. The French confectioner Nicolas Audiger, in his treatise La Maison reglée, informs his readers that the only legitimate way to create iced drinks is to follow “the Italian style”. Wine, spices and fruit are frequent ingredients.
 
1769-1770 
Wafers rolled into a cone shape were certainly in use by the late 1700s, served at the end of the meal or along with fruit and pastries. They are specifically mentioned by Bernard Claremont in The Professed Cook (1769) and Mary Smith in The Complete Housekeeper & Cook (1770).
 
1770 
The ice cream arrives in America, brought to New York by Giovanni Basiolo. At the time, not many different types of ice cream were known apart from sorbets and the more rare milk and chocolate or milk and cinnamon variants. In New York Basioli made a success of selling Panera, a semi-frozen coffee and milk product popular in Genoa. In 1773 the first known newspaper advertisement for ice cream appeared: “Just arrived from London, Monsieur Filippo Lenzi, confectioner, makes and sells candied fruit, brandy, pastas, jellies, dragees, every kind of sweets, with barley, with white or brown sugar, iced products and fruit.”
 
1775 
In Naples Doctor Filippo Baldini publishes De' sorbetti e de' bagni freddi saggi medico-fisiciOn sorbets and frozen products, the medical and physical benefits, the first book entirely devoted to this subject. Here he classifies sorbets in subacid flavors (citron, lemon, strawberry, orange, pineapples, bitter grapes), aromatic flavors (cinnamon, chocolate, coffee, pistachio, pine nuts) and milky flavors (still closer to today’s ice cream). He also ascribes varied medical benefits to sorbets: “Frozen products undoubtedly produce countless positive effects in our bodies.”
 
1782 
George Washington inaugurates the celebrations for the birth of a new heir to the French throne with an important party serving iced products. These are also served in various receptions and events throughout the summer, which becomes habitual. In the summer of 1790 the substantial sum of 200 dollars stands in the accounts as spent on sorbets for official occasions.
 
1843-51 
A breakthrough in the history of ice cream: in 1843 Nancy M. Johnson creates and patents a machine with a manually operated handle to make iced products (an “artificial freezer”), whose basic principles remain valid to this day. Two years later William Young adds a motor. In 1851 Jacob Fussel, the owner of a dairy shop, at the end of the day pours leftover cream and milk into the artificial freezer, and shortly afterwards opens the first ice cream factory, in Seven Valleys.
 
1881
The birth of the Sundae: cups of vanilla ice cream with various syrups, garnishes and decorations on top. Their birthplace and naming is heatedly disputed between Two Rivers in Wisconsin and Ithaca in the State of New York.
 
1884
In Turin one of the earliest ice cream parlors opens: the Gelateria Pepino, still open today. One of its most important innovations was the use of dry ice to transport ice cream, but in 1939 it was also the first to patent a coated ice cream on a stick.
 
1896-1904 
The birth of the ice cream cone. In 1896 Italo Marchioni, having emigrated from north-eastern Italy to New York and opened various restaurants, begins to serve and sell cone-shaped wafer cups and patents his method of making them in 1903. The patent is disputed by Antonio Valvona, who in 1902, in Great Britain, had patented an oven for baking “biscuit cups for ice creams.” In 1904, at the St. Louis World Fair, the Syrian Ernest A. Hamwi, had a stand selling Zalabia (a kind of wafer) right  next-door to one of the fifty stands selling ice cream. He had the idea of curving his wafers to make them cone-shaped, and offered them to replace the ice cream stall’s plates. Twenty years later, the number of cones with ice cream inside sold in the USA topped 245 million.
 
1920
The advent of ice cream vans. Harry Burt, owner of an ice cream parlor in Youngstown in Ohio – and one of the first to sell strolling ice creams on a stick, called the Good Humor bar – invests in buying 12 vans with refrigeration units, in order to sell ice cream in the whole Mahoning Valley. By the 1950s he owns 2,000 vans.
 
1923 
The invasion of the ice pops. In 1923, the Californian Frank Epperson patents a “frozen ice on a stick". At first he calls these Eppsicles, but soon changes the name to Pop’s Icle (Popsicle is still one of the general names used for ice on a stick products in the USA). To start with he sells them at 5 cents each, offering 7 flavors including cherry, which is still the most popular. Two years later he sells the patents and the Popsicle brand to the Joe Lowe Company of New York
 
1927
Throughout the 1800s and the first decades of the 1900s, homemade ice cream was made with manual devices consisting of a hollow interspace around a main container, the former filled with ice and salt, the latter with the mix to be frozen, with a manual handle turned to operate some kind of stirring or mixing system so that the mix would freeze homogeneously. In 1927, Otello Cattabriga from Bologna  developed a mechanical system which imitated the system used for churning butter. His system of attaching a motor to the blending system became highly successful and he soon left his shop in Via Mazzini to manufacture his “electric motor-ice-cream-makers” on an industrial scale: they were soon famous all over the world.
 
1938 
J. F. McCullough (known as Grandpa) and Alex McCullough invents soft ice cream, forerunner of Dairy Queen, based on the realization that the ice cream mix tasted better before it was entirely frozen. So they developed a system of incorporating more air in the ice cream.
 
From 1945 until today
The first ice cream factories opened in the USA before the war, while in Italy pre-confectioned ice cream was a post-war phenomenon, with the first ice creams on a stick opening the road to a boom in the 1950s and 60s which has continued to this day. On the one hand, in recent years home-made or artisan ice cream has become increasingly sophisticated in technique and ingredients, but on the other, the 20th century is the century of mass consumption, thanks a stream of innovations and combinations, of technological developments on all sides, intersecting with changing cultural customs of all kinds. The shiny display cards on freezers in bars and cafés, advertising carry out ice pops and ice creams filled our childhoods with flavors, while the same products invaded cartoons, films and of course TV commercials and slogans… protagonists of popular consumer culture.
 
Consumption grows incessantly and production improves its quality and safety standards. In the 1950s, Italians ate 2.5 kilos of ice cream per person per year, today that figure has doubled (statistic AIDI), and the trend is accelerating: ice cream has what it takes to be considered a food item which is delicious, characteristic, hygienically impeccable and offering optimal nutritional properties in a vast range of varieties and tastes: fresh fruit, gluten-free production system, with haute cuisine or unusual ingredients like baobab, DOP Grana cheese, basil, tomato and even mortadella. Expo Milano 2015 shows us that its possibilities are immense and that its history may be just beginning.
 

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