With the arrival of the new millennium, developing and industrialized Countries decided to take stock of the main problems and challenges being faced by people, governments and organizations around the world. From the discussion came a covenant, a shared document: the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations, unanimously approved by the 191 Delegates of the General Assembly on September 20, 2000. Inside there are also eight points, eight promises: the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be achieved within 15 years, by 2015.
Among these is the desire to ensure environmental sustainability, achieving universal primary education and, perhaps the most important goal for the theme chosen by the Expo Milano 2015 "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life", the elimination of extreme poverty and hunger.
The first objective is divided into three parts, namely: to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day; to achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people; and, between 1990 and 2015, to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
The first was successfully achieved according to the 2014 report on the progress of the MDGs. If in 1990 people living on less than $ 1.25 a day was equivalent to 50 percent of the population in developing countries, in 2010 this proportion has dropped to 22 percent, and in these five years, the situation could be further improved. At the same time, the number of people living in extreme poverty fell from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 1.2 billion in 2010. Only the target for sub-Saharan Africa may not be achieved on time, according to forecasts from the World Bank.
Poverty reduction has also been positively impacted by the decline in people suffering from hunger. It has been calculated that between 2011 and 2013 people suffering from chronic hunger were one in eight, for a total of 842 million. Almost all of them (827 million) living in developing countries. Among the main problems caused by the shortage of food there is malnutrition, i.e. those people who are unable to take regular meals necessary to lead a healthy life, and underdevelopment among children, i.e. those that do not grow as they should because they do not eat meals that are sufficiently rich in nutrients. In 2012, one in four children were suffering from underdevelopment; in 1990 they were 40 per cent. The only region in contrast is again sub-Saharan Africa where malnourished children increased from 44 million in 1990 to 58 million in 2012.
At this rate, it is possible to achieve even more satisfying results. Although the report is 2014, many upgrades refer to data collected by governments and institutions in previous years due to their complexity of processing. The positive results on the fight against hunger in the world bode well because only with a full stomach can you think of anything else. It is not a coincidence that eliminating hunger was put at the top of the list.
A Millenniunm Development Goals - the official website